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Tuesday, February 14, 2006

Lamont,-Washington



Lamont is a town located in Whitman County, Washington. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 106.

History

Lamont was officially incorporated on October 22, 1910.

Geography

Lamont is located at 47�122 North, 117�5416 West (47.200456, -117.904513) GR 1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square kilometer (0.3 square mile). 0.8 km� (0.3 mi�) of it is land and none of the area is covered with water.

Demographics

As of the census GR 2 of 2000, there are 106 people, 35 households, and 26 families residing in the town. The population density is 141.1/km� (369.0/mi�). There are 38 housing units at an average density of 50.6/km� (132.3/mi�). The racial makeup of the town is 94.34% White (U.S. Census), 0.00% African American (U.S. Census), 4.72% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.00% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.00% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.00% from Race (U.S. Census), and 0.94% from two or more races. 0.00% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 35 households out of which 51.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% are Marriage living together, 11.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 25.7% are non-families. 20.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.03 and the average family size is 3.54. In the town the population is spread out with 37.7% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 13.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 30 years. For every 100 females there are 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the town is $32,778, and the median income for a family is $32,750. Males have a median income of $31,250 versus $16,250 for females. The per capita income for the town is $10,026. 15.4% of the population and 13.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 5.7% of those under the age of 18 and 33.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Lower-Windsor-Township,-Pennsylvania



Lower Windsor Township is a township located in York County, Pennsylvania. As of the 2000 census, the township had a total population of 7,405.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 64.9 square kilometer (25.1 square mile). 64.9 km� (25.1 mi�) of it is land and none of the area is covered with water.

Demographics

As of the censusGeographic references 2 of 2000, there are 7,405 people, 2,791 households, and 2,121 families residing in the township. The population density is 114.0/km� (295.4/mi�). There are 3,057 housing units at an average density of 47.1/km� (121.9/mi�). The racial makeup of the township is 98.58% White (U.S. Census), 0.15% African American (U.S. Census), 0.11% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.12% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.00% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.39% from Race (U.S. Census), and 0.65% from two or more races. 1.13% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 2,791 households out of which 35.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% are Marriage living together, 6.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 24.0% are non-families. 18.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.65 and the average family size is 3.00. In the township the population is spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females there are 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the township is $45,413, and the median income for a family is $48,430. Males have a median income of $35,779 versus $23,801 for females. The per capita income for the township is $18,602. 7.3% of the population and 6.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.0% of those under the age of 18 and 8.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Monday, February 13, 2006

Bleckley-County,-Georgia



Bleckley County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state). As of 2000, the population is 11,666. The countys county seat is Cochran, GeorgiaGeographic references.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 568 square kilometer (219 square mile). 563 km� (217 mi�) of it is land and 5 km� (2 mi�) of it is water. The total area is 0.79% water.

Demographics

As of the censusGeographic references 2 of 2000, there are 11,666 people, 4,372 households, and 3,121 families residing in the county. The population density is 21/km� (54/mi�). There are 4,866 housing units at an average density of 9/km� (22/mi�). The racial makeup of the county is 73.24% Race (U.S. census), 24.59% Race (U.S. census) or Race (U.S. census), 0.09% Race (U.S. census), 0.93% Race (U.S. census), 0.03% Race (U.S. census), 0.48% from race (U.S. census), and 0.63% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population are Race (U.S. census) or Race (U.S. census) of any race. There are 4,372 households out of which 32.90% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% are Marriage living together, 15.50% have a female householder with no husband present, and 28.60% are non-families. 25.50% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.00% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.52 and the average family size is 3.02. In the county the population is spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 11.30% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, and 13.60% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 88.50 males. The median income for a household in the county is $33,448, and the median income for a family is $41,095. Males have a median income of $30,917 versus $22,912 for females. The per capita income for the county is $15,934. 15.90% of the population and 11.70% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 24.10% of those under the age of 18 and 17.80% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Cities and towns

Allentown, Georgia
Cochran, Georgia Georgia

Caldas-da-Rainha



Caldas da Rainha is a city (Portuguese: Cities of Portugal) in Portugal. The name can be translated as Queens Hot Springs, Queens Spa or Queens Thermal Waters. Caldas da Rainha is the seat of the larger municipality (Portuguese: concelho or munic�pio) of the same name. Caldas da Rainha is the capital of the Comunidade Urbana do Oeste (West Urban Community, part of the nations latest local government plan). The city is best known for its hot springs and pottery. (municipality) of Caldas da Rainha in Portugal

History

The Founding

Caldas da Rainha was founded by Leonor of Viseu, wife of John II of Portugal. One day in 1484, while traveling from �bidos to Batalha, she found a group of peasants bathing in foul-smelling waters by the roadside. She stopped to inquire about this oddity and was told that the waters possessed curative powers. She decided to try it for herself. She was pleased to find that she was quickly relieved of some affliction she had been suffering (exactly what is not known). On that site, the queen ordered a thermal hospital built so that others may enjoy the relief that she felt. Construction began the following year, 1485. Although the first patients were admitted in 1488, construction was not completed until about 1496 or 1497. The name of the settlement that grew up around the site (Caldas da Rainha), reminds us of both its founder and the reason for its existence.

Evolution

Caldas da Rainha was officially elevated to the status of town (Portuguese: Towns of Portugal) in 1511. It became a city in 1927.

Historical Tidbits

During World War II hundreds of Jewish refugees came to Caldas da Rainha to escape Nazism.

Law/Government

C�mara Municipal

President: Fernando Jos� da Costa
Vice-President: Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira
Members (Party):
Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira (Social Democratic Party (Portugal))
Maria da Conei��o Feliciano Antunes Bretts Jardim Pereira (PSD) one person seriously, check the Web site >
Jorge Manuel Mangorrinha Martins (PSD)
Hugo Patr�cio Martinho de Oliveira (PSD)
Herminio do Coito Ma��s (Socialist Party (Portugal))
Jo�o Pedro da Silva Correia (PS)

Assembleia Municipal

President: Luis Manuel Monteiro Ribeiro
Members (Party):
Jos� Lu�s de Carvalho Lalanda Ribeiro (PSD)
Jos� Eduardo Vera Cruz Jardim (PS)
Lu�s Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro (PSD)
Rui Alves Gomes (PSD)
Manuel Mendes Nunes (PS)
Jos� Fernando dAlmeida Silva Pereira (PSD)
Lu�s Miguel da Rosa Goul�o Freire (PSD)
Arnaldo Lino Monteiro da Rocha (PS)
Faustino Filipe Cunha (PSD, Independent Politics)
M�rio de Sousa Tavares (PS)
Daniel Miguel Rebelo (PSD)
Duarte Nuno Batista Ferreira (Peoples Party (Portugal))
Maria Da Concei��o da Costa Martins (PSD)
Maria Margarida Nave Nunes Maldonado Freitas (PS)
Pedro Miguel de Oliveira Marques (PSD)
Nuno Filipe Vieira Lino Fausto de Sousa (PSD)
M�rio Ant�nio Duarte Pacheco (PS)
Jos� Pedro Fernandes Viegas (PSD, Independent)
Ana Margarida Lopes Botelho (Unitary Democratic Coalition (Portugal))
Sara Maria Belo Velez (PS)
Vitor Manuel Antunes Gancho (PSD)

Geography

Caldas da Rainha is located at 39.40�N latitde 9.13�W longitde. The municipality comprises an area of 254.6 km� (updated 2003 statistics). The city is located approximately 82 km north of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Although the municipality borders the Atlantic Ocean, the city proper is about 10 km from the ocean. Administratively, Caldas da Rainha is in the district of Leiria (district). Statistically, it is in the sub-region of Oeste within the region of Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Historically, it is located in the province of Estremadura. The municipality is bordered to the north by Alcoba�a, to the east by Rio Maior and to the south by Bombarral, Cadaval and �bidos.

List of Freguesias

The municipality of Caldas da Rainha comprises sixteen parishes (Portuguese: freguesias). They are: border + Instituto Nacional de Estat�stica (INE) - Freguesia Population
(Resident)
(2001 census) Area
(Total)
(Square kilometre) - A-dos-Francos Alvorninha Carvalhal Benfeito Coto Foz do Arelho Landal Nadadouro Nossa Senhora do P�pulo (part of the city of Caldas da Rainha) Salir de Matos Salir do Porto Santa Catarina, Caldas da Rainha, Portugal Santo Onofre (part of the city of Caldas da Rainha) S�o Greg�rio Serra do Bouro Tornada Vidais Nossa Senhora do P�pulo and Santo Onofre are urban freguesias and form the city of Caldas da Rainha, the other fourteen freguesias form the rural part of the municipality and do not belong to the city. Some sources, including the Instituto Nacional de Estat�stica, count part or all of Tornada as being part of the city, due to its increasingly urban nature. The two freguesias which comprise the city are officially designated by the INE as Caldas da Rainha (N Senhora do P�pulo) and Caldas da Rainha (Santo Onofre). N Senhora do P�pulo is listed by this organization between Alvorninha and Carvalhal Benfeito, as if its name were simply Caldas da Rainha. Santo Onofre is last in the INEs list of Caldass freguesias, because it was the most recent created, and the INE must not have wanted to upset the numeration of the freguesias.

Economy

There are 1,604 business firms in the municipality. 4% are in the primary sector (agriculture), 23.2% are in the secondary sector (manufacturing) and 72.8% are in the tertiary sector (services). There are 30 banking institutions, with deposits totaling �528,543,300. 49% of the population is employed, while 6.5% are unemployed. (The remainder are too young, are retired or do not otherwise participate in the workforce.) Source: Instituto Nacional de Estat�stica (2002 statistics, employment stats are from 2001)

Demographics

As of the 2001 census, there are 48,846 inhabitants in the municipality. This represents a 13.1% increase over the 1991 population of 43,205. Of current inhabitants, 23,483 (48.1%) are male and 25,363 (51.9%) are female. Inhabitants aged 14 and under number 7,666 (15.7%), those aged 15 to 24 number 6,509 (13.3%), those aged 25 to 64 number 25,867 (53.0%) and those aged 65 and over number 8,804 (18.0%). The popluation density is 197.1 inhabitants/km� (2002). See List of Freguesias for a breakdown of population by freguesia. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estat�stica

Sites of Interest

Beaches and Water

Foz do Arelho � beach on Atlantic Ocean, 10 km from center of town
Lagoa de �bidos � lagoon which empties into the Atlantic Ocean
Salir do Porto � beach on the Atlantic Ocean

Churches

Ermida da S�o Sebasti�o � 16th-century chapel
Igreja Nossa Senhora do P�pulo � church near the thermal hospital, ca. 1500, built by order of Queen Leonor
Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Concei��o (XX Century)

Museums

Casa Museu de S. Rafael � ceramics
Museu Atelier Ant�nio Duarte � sculpture
Museu Atelier Jo�o Fragoso � sculpture
Museu da Cer�mica � ceramics museum
Museu do Hospital e das Caldas � art museum asscociated with the thermal hospital
Museu Jos� Malhoa � art museum located in Parque D. Carlos I

Parks and Plazas

Parque D. Carlos I � park in center of town
Pra�a da Rep�blica � square in center of town, surrounded by shops, hosts daily green market (aka Pra�a da Fruta)

Colleges/Universities

Centro de Forma��o Profissional da Ind�stria Metal�rgica e Metalomec�nica (CENFIM) � metallurgy and metal mechanics
Centro de Forma��o Profissional para a Ind�stria Cer�mica (CENCAL) � ceramics
Escola de Tecnologia e Gest�o Industrial (ETGI) � technology and industrial management (Associa��o para a Escola Superior de Biotecnologia da Universidade Cat�lica, AESBUC)
Escola Superior de Biotecnologia (Universidade Cat�lica Portuguesa) � biotechnology
Escola Superior de Educa��o de Leiria � education
Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Gest�o, Arte e Design (ESTGAD) � technology, management, art and design
Escola T�cnica Empresarial do Oeste � business technology
Universidade Aut�noma de Lisboa

Sports Teams

To come

Notable Natives

Mestre Ant�nio Duarte
Jos� Malhoa
Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro
Raul Proen�a

Local Interest

Ceramics

Caldas da Rainha is known for its glazed ceramic pottery (lou�a das Caldas). Much of this is shaped like fruits, vegetables and animals. Other styles include breasts, phalluses and nude figurines. The ceramics are available for purchase at stands in the daily market at Pra�a da Rep�blica and shops in the vicinity. They are also available in stores outside Portugal, including a number of upmarket housewares stores. One popular ceramic figure is Z� Povinho. This bearded peasant, a sort of symbol of the region, represents everyman. He is shown with an upraised fist. The pottery can be utilitarian as well as decorative. One popular model is a soup tureen shaped like a cabbge.

Gastronomy

Cavacas das Caldas are a small-bowl-sized, shell-shaped confection of flour and eggs, with a crunchy sugar covering. Beijinhos das Caldas (English: kisses) are similar, but are smaller and round.

Miscellaneous Information

Municipal Holiday: May 15
Postal Code: 2500
Telephone Dialing Code: 262

Official Web Site

C�mara Municipal de Caldas da Rainha � The municipal governments Web site (in Portuguese, English in development)

General Interest

Oeste Online
Caldas Online

Maps

The city (C�mara Municipal)
caldrainha&mg 1&lg pt The city (viajar.clix.pt)
caldrainha2&mg 1&lg pt The city center (viajar.clix.pt)
Borders of the freguesias (C�mara Municipal)
Content&pa showpage&pid 11 Colorful, clickable map showing sites and businesses (Caldas Online)
Sections&sop viewarticle&artid 22 Principal roads to Caldas da Rainha (Caldas Online)
238-5031-7&taps 1 Caldas da Rainha in context of Disrict of Leiria (supertravelnet.com)

Newspapers

Gazeta da Caldas
Jornal das Caldas

Education

Colleges/Universities

Centro de Forma��o Profissional para a Ind�stria Cer�mica (CENCAL)
Escola de Tecnologia e Gest�o Industrial (ETGI)
Escola Profissional T�cnica Empresarial do Oeste
Escola Superior de Artes e Design
Escola Superior de Biotecnologia (Universidade Cat�lica Portuguesa)
Escola Superior de Educa��o de Leiria
Universidade Aut�noma de Lisboa

Secondary Schools

Escola Secund�ria de Raul Proen�a � contains some useful information in English

Miscellaneous

Bandeiras do Concelho das Caldas da Rainha � Flag of the municipality (in Portuguese)

Sunday, February 12, 2006

Louisiana-Purchase-(musical)



Louisiana Purchase is a musical theater production from 1940. It has music and lyrics by Irving Berlin and book by Morrie Ryskind based on a story by B. G. DeSylva.

The songs

Fools Fall In Love
Its A Lovely Day Tomorrow
Latins Know How
The Lord Done Fixed Up My Soul
Louisiana Purchase
Outside Of That I Love You
What Chance have I?
You Cant Brush Me Off
Youre Lonely And Im Lonely 1940 Broadway theatre production The show opened at the Imperial Theater, New York City on May 28, 1940 and ran for 444 performances. It was directed by Edgar MacGregor with orchestrations by Robert Russell Bennett. Cast:
Jim Taylor played by William Gaxton
Marina Van Linden played by Vera Zorina
Senator Oliver P. Loganberry played by Victor Moore
Madame Bordelaise played by Irene Bordoni
Beatrice played by Carol Bruce
Lee Davis played by Nick Long Jnr. 1941 Paramount Pictures musical film The film version was directed by Irving Cummings. Cast:
Jim Taylor played by Bob Hope
Marina Van Linden played by Vera Zorina
Senator Oliver P. Loganberry played by Victor Moore
Madame Bordelaise played by Irene Bordoni
Beatrice played by Dona Drake

Boston-Herald



The Boston Herald is a tabloid newspaper, the smaller of the two big dailies in Boston, Massachusetts, with a daily circulation of 242,957 in September 2002. The other is The Boston Globe. The current Herald has a history that can be traced back through two lineages and two media moguls nearly a century separated. Its history involves the Daily Advertiser and the old Boston Herald and it was owned at one point by William Randolph Hearst and later by Rupert Murdoch. The Daily Advertiser was established in 1813 in Boston by Nathan Hale. The paper grew to prominence through the 19th century taking over other Boston area papers. In 1904, William Randolph Hearst began publishing his own newspaper in Boston called The American. Hearst ultimately ended up purchasing the Daily Advertiser in 1917. By 1938, the Daily Advertiser had changed to the Daily Record, and The American had become the Sunday Advertiser. A third paper owned by Hearst called the Afternoon Record, which had renamed to Evening American, merged in 1961 with the Daily Record to form the Record American. The Sunday Advertiser and Record American would ultimately be merged in 1972 into a line of newspapers that stretched back to the old Boston Herald. The old Boston Herald was founded in 1846 by a group of Boston printers jointly under the name of John A. French & Company. They paper was published as a single sheet, two-sided paper and it was sold it for one cent. Its first editor, William O. Eaton, just 22 years old, said The Herald will be independent in politics and religion, liberal, industrious, enterprising, critically concerned with literacy and dramatic matters, and diligent in its mission to report and analyze the news, local and global. Even earlier than the Herald, the Boston Traveler was founded in 1825 as a bulletin for stage coach listings. In 1912, the Herald acquired the Traveler, eventually becoming the Boston Herald Traveler, in 1967. In 1946, the Herald Traveler organization acquired Boston radio station WHDH. Two years later, WHDH-FM was licensed, and on November 26, 1957, WHDH-TV made its d�but as an American Broadcasting Company affiliate on channel 5. In 1961, WHDH-TVs affiliation switched to Columbia Broadcasting System. Soon after, channel 5 was embroiled in a Federal Communications Commission proceeding over whether it was appropriate for a newspaper to own a television station. (Many Boston broadcast historians accuse the Boston Globe of being covertly behind the proceeding. The Herald Traveler was Republican in sympathies, and the Globe was allied with the Kennedy political family interests.) The FCC ordered a comparative hearing, and in 1969 a competing applicant, Boston Broadcasters, Inc. was granted a construction permit to replace WHDH-TV on channel 5. The Herald Traveler fought the decision in court by this time, revenues from channel 5 were all but keeping the newspaper afloat but its final appeal ran out in 1972 and WHDH-TV signed off for good on March 19. Without a television station to cross-subsidize the newspaper, the Herald Traveler was no longer able to remain in business, and the newspaper was sold to Hearst Corporations rival Record American. The two papers were merged to become the Boston Herald American. The paper became a tabloid newspaper in September 1981. On December 20, 1982, the paper was purchased by Rupert Murdoch, who changed its name back to the Boston Herald. The Herald continued to grow over the ensuing decades, expanding its coverage and increasing its circulation. In February 1994, News Corporation was forced to sell the paper, in order that its subsidiary Fox Television Network could legally consummate its purchase of a Boston-area television station. Patrick Purcell, who was the publisher of the Boston Herald and a News Corporation executive, purchased the Herald and established it as an independent newspaper. Several years later, Purcell would give the Herald a suburban presence it had never had by purchasing the money-losing Community Newspaper Company from Fidelity Investments. Although the companies merged under the banner of Herald Media, Inc., the suburban papers maintained their distinct editorial and marketing identity. In March 2004, the Herald hired Mike Barnicle, a local columnist fired by its rival the Boston Globe back in 1998 for journalistic fraud.

References

Sterling Quinlan, The Hundred Million Dollar Lunch (Chicago, J.P. OHara, 1974), ISBN 0879553103.

Saturday, February 11, 2006

Mathematical-constant



A mathematical constant is a quantity, usually a real number or a complex number, that arises naturally in mathematics and does not change. Unlike physical constants, mathematical constants are defined independently of any physical measurement. For example, up to multiplication with nonzero complex numbers, there is a unique holomorphic function f with f f. Therefore, f(1)/f(0) is a mathematical constant, the constant e (mathematical constant). f is also a periodic function, and the absolute value of its period is another mathematical constant, 2. Mathematical constants are typically elements of the field (mathematics) of real numbers or complex numbers. Mathematical constants that one can talk about are definable numbers (and almost always also computable number). However, there are still some mathematical constants for which only very rough estimates are known. An alternate sorting may be found at Mathematical constant (sorted by continued fraction representation)

Table of selected mathematical constants

Abbreviations used: I - irrational number, A - algebraic number, T - transcendental number, ? - unknown Gen - Mathematics, NuT - Number theory, ChT - Chaos theory, Com - Combinatorics, Inf - Information theory, Ana - Mathematical analysis
Symbol Approximate Value Name Field N First described of known digits
� 3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 Pi, Archimedes constant or Ludolph van Ceulens number Mathematics, Mathematical analysis transcendental number 1,241,100,000,000
e � 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 02874 71352 66249 e (mathematical constant), base of Natural logarithm Mathematics, Mathematical analysis transcendental number 50,100,000,000
v2 � 1.41421 35623 73095 04880 16887 24209 69807 Pythagoras constant, square root of two Mathematics irrational number,algebraic number 137,438,953,444
v3 � 1.73205 08075 68877 29352 74463 41505 Theodorus constant, square root of three Mathematics irrational number,algebraic number
G � 0.57721 56649 01532 86060 65120 90082 40243 Euler-Mascheroni constant Mathematics, Number theory 108,000,000
F � 1.61803 39887 49894 84820 45868 34365 63811 Golden mean Mathematics algebraic number 3,141,000,000
� 0.70258 Embree-Trefethen constant Number theory
� 4.66920 16091 02990 67185 32038 20466 20161 Feigenbaum constant chaos theory
� 2.50290 78750 95892 82228 39028 73218 21578 Feigenbaum constant chaos theory
C2 � 0.66016 18158 46869 57392 78121 10014 55577 Twin prime conjecture Number theory 5,020
M1 � 0.26149 72128 47642 78375 54268 38608 69585 Meissel-Mertens constant Number theory 1866
1874
8,010
B2 � 1.90216 05823 Bruns constant for twin prime Number theory 1919 10
B4 � 0.87058 83800 Bruns constant for prime quadruplets Number theory
� 2.7 � 109 de Bruijn-Newman constant Number theory 1950?
K � 0.91596 55941 77219 01505 46035 14932 38411 Catalans constant combinatorics 201,000,000
K � 0.76422 36535 89220 66 Landau-Ramanujan constant Number theory irrational number (?) 30,010
K � 1.13198 824 Viswanaths constant 1 Number theory 8
B�L � 1.08366 Legendres constant Number theory
� 1.45136 92348 83381 05028 39684 85892 027 Ramanujan-Soldner constant Number theory 75,500
EB � 1.60669 51524 15291 763 Erd�s-Borwein constant Number theory irrational number
O Chaitins constant Algorithmic information theory transcendental number
� 0.28016 94990 Bernsteins constant analysis Ana � 0.30366 30029 Gauss-Kuzmin-Wirsing constant >� 0.35323 63719 Hafner-Sarnak-McCurley constant theory NuT � 0.62432 99885 Golomb-Dickman constant Number theory � 0.62946 50204 Cahens constant >� 0.66274 34193 Laplace limit >� 0.80939 40205 Alladi-Grinstead constant theory NuT � 1.09868 58055 Lengyels constant >� 1.18656 91104 Khinchin-L�vy constant theory NuT � 1.20205 69031 59594 28539 97381 Ap�rys constant > 1,000,000,000
T � 1.30637 78838 63080 69046 Mills constant theory NuT � 1.45607 49485 82689 67139 95953 51116 54356 Backhouses constant >� 1.46707 80794 Porters constant theory NuT � 1.53960 07178 Liebs square ice constant >� 1.70521 11401 05367 Nivens constant theory NuT � 2.58498 17596 Sierpinskis constant >� 2.68545 2001 Khinchins constant theory NuT � 2.80777 02420 Frans�n-Robinson constant analysis Ana �.5 Landaus constant Mathematical analysis Mathematical constant/Alternative sorting based on the continued fraction representations
Physical constants

Jean-Turner



Jean McGivern Turner (Born December 23, 1939) is an Independent Member of the Scottish Parliament for Strathkelvin and Bearsden. Prior to her election, Turner was a doctor in the Springburn area in Glasgow, Scotland for 25 years. Before that, she was an anesthetist for ten years. She was lured to seek political office due to the cut in services at Stobhill hospital. Turner also campaigned against Labour Party (UK)s treatment of the British National Health Service. Because of this, she stood as a candidate in the Strathkelvin and Bearsden Holyrood By-Election of 2001. In that race, she got 7,572 votes or 18%. In 2003, she stood again in Strathkelvin and Bearsden on the same platform she used in 2001. This time, Turner won the seat with 10,988 votes or 31%. This win prompted the loser, Labour Party (UK) MSP Brian Fitzpatrick, to remark: Narrow win, big win, whatever, it is still a disappointment, but we are coming back for this seat. Links and SourcesHospital campaign shakes by-election
GP in hospitals election fight
Independents head to Holyrood
Scottish Parliament Bio
12241 Dod Bio

Friday, February 10, 2006

Tottenham



Tottenham
British national grid reference system: gbmappingsmall TQ335905
Administration
Borough: London Borough of Haringey
Administrative counties of England: Greater London
Regions of England: Greater London
Home Nations: England
Other
Ceremonial counties of England: Greater London
Traditional counties of England: Middlesex
Post Office and Telephone
Postal counties of Great Britain: London
Postcode: N15, N17
UK telephone numbering plan: 020
Tottenham is an area in North London, England, Originally a rural area in the County of Middlesex later an Urban District, it became a Borough in 1934, then a part of London Borough of Haringey in 1965. Tottenham grew up along the old Roman Road, Ermine Street and between High Cross and Tottenham Hale, todays Monument Way. A rural Tottenham featured in Isaak Waltons book The Compleat Angler published in 1653 Tottenham remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s. The Great Eastern Railway introduced special Workmans Trains & Fares on its newly opened Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway & Chingford Branch Lines. Tottenhams market gardens and low-lying fields were then rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower-middle and working classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. This fare policy stimulated the relatively early development of the area into a London suburb. The River Lea that formed the eastern boundary of the Borough of Tottenham to Walthamstow, Middlesex to Essex, was also the boundary of Danelaw. This is now the boundary of the London Borough Haringey to London Borough of Waltham Forest. Tottenham is the home of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. Football Club, whose ground at Paxton Road is named White Hart Lane after the site of the original ground.

Districts

Bruce Grove
Broadwater Farm
Harringay the area along Green Lanes was administratively part of the Borough of Tottenham.
Seven Sisters gets its name from a circle of seven trees (now replanted) that were planted by a Tottenham resident ca. 1700s on Page Green Common to commemorate his daughters. The Seven Sisters Road was constructed in the 1830s to provide a link across countryside from Tottenham to Holloway.
South Tottenham
Tottenham Green
Tottenham Hale
Tottenham Marshes
Wood Green was an ancient woodland area that covered most of the present Wood Green.
West Green

Sites of Historical Interest

All Hallows Church

Tottenham Parish Church which dates back to Norman times.

Broadwater Farm

Housing estate built 1967, site of Broadwater Farm riot of 1986, in which two people were killed.

Bruce Castle

Now a Local History Museum, was Tottenhams Manor House, named after the father of the Lord of the Manor. It was purchased by Sir Rowland Hill and he was living here when he as Postmaster General introduced the Penny Postage in 1840. Arena(Now Demolished)

St Ann�s Church

Built in 1860, St Ann�s church houses the organ on which Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy composed the famous Wedding March from A Midsummer Nights Dream.

Tottenham High Cross

Erected sometime between 1600-1609 on the site of an earlier Christian cross. Often mistakenly thought to be an Eleanor cross.

Public Transportation

Two London Underground Lines serve Tottenham. The Piccadilly Line opened in 1932 has one station Turnpike Lane tube station in Tottenham. The Victoria Line which opened in 1968 has its operating depot in Tottenham at Northumberland Park Depot and has two stations, Seven Sisters station and Tottenham Hale station situated within the area. Suburban railway stations, Seven Sisters, Tottenham Hale, Bruce Grove railway station, White Hart Lane railway station, and Northumberland Park station serve the area.The train service is provided WAGN.

History of the Railways of Tottenham

Northern & Eastern Railway

Running from Stratford to Broxbourne was opened 15th September 1840 with two stations in the district called Tottenham Hale station & Northumberland Park Station.

Tottenham & Hampstead Junction Railway

Opened 21st July 1868. The two stations on this line in the district were opened later. Harringay Park (Green Lanes) in 1880 and St Anns Rd in 1882 closing after service on 8th August 1942.

Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway

The section between Stoke Newington and Lower Edmonton opened July 22,1872 with stations at Stamford Hill (half of the station lies in the Borough), Seven Sisters station, Bruce Grove railway station, and White Hart Lane railway station in Tottenham.

Palace Gates Line

Opened within Tottenham on1 January 1878 with stations at Seven Sisters station and West Green railway station. Passenger services ceased in 1963 with the line finally closing on 7 February 1965.

Tottenham & Forest Gate Railway

Opened 9th July 1894.

London Underground Piccadilly Line

Extended through Turnpike Lane tube station in 1932.

London Underground Victoria Line

Opened on Victoria Line.

Postal Districts

The former Borough of Tottenham was divided into three London postal districts. London N15 South Tottenham, London N17 Tottenham and London N4 Harringay (Finsbury Park).

Neighbouring Boroughs & Districts

London Borough of Enfield
Edmonton, London London N18.
London Borough of Waltham Forest
Walthamstow London E17.
London Borough of Hackney
Stamford Hill London N16.
London Borough of Islington
Finsbury Park London N4.
London Borough of Haringey
Hornsey London N8.
Wood Green London N22.

�ire



�ire (pronounced AIR uh, in the Irish language, translated as Ireland) is the name given in Article 4 of the 1937 Bunreacht na h�ireann to the 26-county Ireland state, created under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, which was known between 1922 and 1937 as the Irish Free State. The name �ire is the nominative form in modern Irish language of the name for the goddess �riu, a mythical figure who helped the Gaels conquer Ireland as described in the Book of Invasions. �ire is still used in the Irish language today to refer to the Ireland as well as the state. Since 1949, the term Republic of Ireland has generally been used in preference to �ire, to clarify that the state rather than the whole island is under discussion. It is sometimes felt that use of �ire is associated with a condescending attitude to Ireland in some right wing quarters of the British media. Technically, however, as the Republic of Ireland Act enacted in 1948 makes clear, the Republic of Ireland is actually a description rather than a name, even if generally used as such.

�ire in the Irish Constitution

The Fianna F�il party government (1932-1948) of �amon de Valera drafted an entirely new constitution, called Bunreacht na h�ireann. The constitution is not an act of the parliament of the Irish Free State, rather it was enacted by the people, by a plebiscite in 1937. The term �ire was used in the constitution to indicate a break with the Irish Free State without implying a return to the Irish Republic or a break with the Crown. Among the new features of that new constitution were a President of Ireland, renaming the President of the Executive Council the Taoiseach, and restoring the senate Seanad �ireann. As it was the religion of over 95% of the population there was a reference (since repealed) to the special position of the Roman Catholic church. Like the Irish Free State constitution which it replaced, Bunreacht na h�ireann had no constitutional link with the Crown, except in external relations through a combination of Article 29 of the Constitution and the External Relations Act, 1936. The repeal of the latter Act by the Republic of Ireland Act, 1948 created Ireland as a sovereign Republic in 1949, with Republic of Ireland as a new description but without changing the name of the state from �ire or Ireland.

From �ire to the Republic of Ireland

The declaration of the republic proved somewhat controversial. In 1945 when asked if he planned to do so, de Valera had replied, we are a republic, having refused to say so before for eight years. He also insisted that Ireland had no king but simply used an external king as an organ in international affairs. However, that was not the view of constitutional lawyers including de Valeras Attorneys-General, whose disagreement with de Valeras interpretation only came to light when the state papers from the 1930s and 1940s were released to historians. Nor was it the view of a single state worldwide, all of whom believed that Ireland did have a king, George VI of the United Kingdom who had been proclaimed King of Ireland in December 1936, and to whom they accredited ambassadors to Ireland. King George in turn as King of Ireland accredited all Irish diplomats. All treaties signed by the Irish Taoiseach or Minister for External Affairs were signed in the name of King George. De Valera did have a history of making statements on constitutional matters that were legally questionable. His belief that the Governor-Generals post had been abolished by a constitutional amendment in December 1936 was privately rejected by his own Attorney-General, James Geoghegan, Secretary to the Executive Council (ie, the states main civil servant and his own closest advisor), Maurice Moynihan, the Parliamentary Draftsmans Office (which drafted legislation) and other leading legal figures in the government. To sort out what was privately seen as a legal mess, de Valera had had to introduce a second enactment, the Executive Power (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1937, which was backdated as if effective from the original date of the supposed abolition in December 1936. In 1947, de Valeras new Attorney-General, future President of Ireland Cearbhall ODalaigh, began drafting a bill to grant to the President the powers in international affairs possessed by the King. Part of the debate in government revolved around whether a republic should be declared in the bill. The very existence of the debate is evidence that de Valeras latest attorney-general and part of his cabinet, maybe even de Valera himself, did not agree with de Valeras statement in 1945 that �ire was already a republic. In the end the draft bill was never submitted to the Oireachtas for approval. Whether that is because it was simply abandoned or because de Valera planned to introduce it after the 1948 general election (which he unexpectedly lost) is unclear. A bill to finally and unambiguously declare a republic was introduced in 1948 by the new Taoiseach, John A. Costello of the Fine Gael party. What caused the bill to be introduced remains a mystery. Costello made the announcement that the bill was to be introduced when he was in Ottawa, during an official visit to Canada. It had been suggested that it was a spur of the moment reaction to offence caused by the Governor-General of Canada, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis who was of Northern Ireland descent and who allegedly placed symbols of Northern Ireland, notably a replica of the famous Roaring Meg cannon used in the Siege of Derry, in front of an affronted Costello at a state dinner. What is certain is that the prior arrangement whereby toasts to the King (symbolising Canada) and the President (representing Ireland) were to be proposed, was broken. Only a toast to the King was proposed, to the fury of the Irish delegation. Shortly afterwards Costello announced the plan to declare the republic. According to all the ministers in Costellos cabinet but one, however, the decision to declare a republic had already been made prior to Costellos Canadian visit. Costellos revelation of the decision was because the Sunday Independent (an Irish newspaper) had discovered the fact and was about to break the story as an exclusive. However, one minister, the controversial Noel Browne, gave a different account in his autobiography, Against the Tide. He claimed Costellos announcement was done in a fit of anger of his treatment by the Governor-General and that when he returned, Costello, at an assembly of ministers in his home, offered to resign because of his manufacture of a major government policy initiative on the spot in Canada. However, according to Browne, all the ministers agreed not to accept the resignation and to manufacture the story of a prior cabinet decision. The evidence of what really happened remains ambiguous. There is no record of a prior decision to declare a republic before Costellos Canadian trip, among cabinet papers for 1948, which supports Brownes claim. However, in what is generally regarded as one of its most ill-judged decisions, the Costello government refused to allow the Secretary to the Government, Maurice Moynihan, to attend cabinet meetings and take minutes, because they believed he had been close to their enemy, Eamon de Valera (as de Valera had been in office continually for sixteen years and directly preceded them, and as Moynihan had been the states chief civil servant for much of that time, it was hardly surprising that he would have been close to de Valera. No evidence suggests however that he was pro-de Valera and anti-them, and they reversed their decision when they returned to government in 1954.) As a result the minutes were kept by a Parliamentary Secretary (junior minister), future Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave. As someone who had never kept minutes before, it is understandable that Cosgraves minutes at least early on in the government proved less than a thorough record of government decisions. So whether the issue was never raised, was raised but no decision taken, a decision taken informally or formally cannot be unambiguously clarified on the basis of the less than adequate minutes of cabinet meetings in 1948. In addition, Brownes own book, published in the 1980s, is littered with major factual inaccuracies and thus is seen as equally unreliable. The last two surviving ministers of that cabinet in the 1980s, former Minister for External Affairs Sean MacBride and Browne, publicly and trenchantly disagreed as to the events that led to the declaration of the republic. What is certain is that one mans account is wrong. But it has proved impossible to ascertain for certain which ones.1 The Republic of Ireland Act was enacted in Oireachtas �ireann with all parties voting for it. De Valera did suggest that it would have been better to reserve the declaration of the republic until Irish unity had been achieved, a comment hard to reconcile with his 1945 claim that �ire was already a republic. Speaking in Seanad �ireann Costello told senators that as a matter of law, the King was indeed King of Ireland and Irish head of state and the President of Ireland was in effect no more than first citizen and a local notable, until the new law came into force. On 1 April 1949 the Republic of Ireland Act, 1948 came into force. Ireland ceased to have a king. The President of Ireland was upgraded to a full head of state. While the constitutional name of the state, �ire was not changed, the descriptive name given to �ire in the new Act, The Republic of Ireland, became the effective name of the twenty-six county state. All previous ambiguities over name, title, head of state and the positions of the King of Ireland and the President of Ireland were resolved. The Westminster Parliament passed its own Ireland Act 1949 acknowledging the changes, preserving certain rights of Irish citizens in the United Kingdom, and designating the Republic of Ireland as its name for the resulting state. King George VI, who no longer had King of Ireland among his titles, sent a message of goodwill to the new Irish head of state, President Sean T. OKelly. OKellys new status as head of state was celebrated by the first ever state visit by an Irish president abroad, to the Holy See in 1950. (En route, he planned to do the decent thing and call upon Your Majesty but timetabling problems prevented what was intended to be the first ever public meeting between a British king and an Irish president.) The declaration of the republic had two controversial after-effects. On becoming a republic a country ceases to be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Though 1949 saw India as a republic reapply for membership and be accepted, the Republic of Ireland decided not to.2 More controversially, the British parliaments Ireland Act 1949 gave a legislative guarantee to Northern Ireland that Northern Ireland would continue to remain a part of the United Kingdom unless the parliament of Northern Ireland formally expressed a wish to join a United Ireland. This constitutional guarantee became a source of much controversy during the rest of the twentieth century. The word �ire features on all Irish (and since 2002 Euro-Irish) coins, postage stamps, passports and other offical state documents issued since 1937 - see Great Seal of Ireland. Before then, Saorst�t �ireann, the Irish translation of Irish Free State, featured.

Footnote

1 By the 1980s both mens personal relationship had broken down completely. Browne saw MacBride, who had been his party leader at the time, as egotistical and manipulative, holding him personally responsible for his dismissal from cabinet. (It was MacBride who had demanded and got Brownes resignation over the Mother and Child Scheme fiasco.) MacBride saw Browne as a deliberately provocative trouble-maker who, in his book Against the Tide, had told lies including a series of characterisations of his cabinet colleagues that were generally seen as gross and offensive distortions. (One character mocked, T�naiste William Norton, was attacked for his liking for sugar and desserts, his eating habits compared to that of a pig. Browne, himself a medical doctor, never mentioned in the book that Norton was subsequently diagnosed as a Diabetes mellitus, which would have explained his dietary habits.) Thus the MacBride/Browne clash over Brownes book and its claims about the declaration of the republic was seen not as discussion of the topic but of both settling old scores with a long-term bitter enemy. 2 The issue of whether Ireland should rejoin the Commonwealth is occasionally raised. One of Sean Lemasss ministers, Brian Lenihan, suggested the Republic of Ireland should rejoin in the 1960s. The suggestion, previously approved by Lemass who wanted to see the reaction, drew a negative response and was quietly dropped. In the 1990s, Eamon � Cuiv then a junior minister (now a full cabinet minister), and coincidentally a grandson of Eamon de Valera, unilaterally suggested the Republic of Ireland should reapply for membership. The suggestion drew little hostility but no great enthusiasm. � Cuiv has continued to raise the issue occasionally.

Additional reading and sources

Noel Browne, Against the Tide
Bunreacht na h�ireann (1937 Irish Constitution)
Stephen Collins, The Cosgrave Legacy
Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera (Hutchinson, 1993)
Brian Farrell, De Valeras Constitution and Ours
F.S.L. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine
David Gwynn Morgan, Constitutional Law of Ireland
Tim Murphy and Patrick Twomey (eds.) Irelands Evolving Constitution: 1937-1997 Collected Essays (Hart, 1998) ISBN 1901362175
Alan J. Ward, The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland 1782-1992 (Irish Academic Press, 1994) ISBN 07165252283 Also: D�il Debates, papers from the Irish National Archives and information from a forthcoming book. by:
Irish Free State (1922-37) width 40% align center Irish States (1171-present) width 30% align center Alternative Description Used:
Republic of Ireland (1949- present)

Thursday, February 09, 2006

Anting-(bird-activity)



Anting is when birds rub insects on their feathers, usually ants that secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, that can act as an insecticide, miticide, fungicide, or bactericide. It perhaps also can supplement the birds own preen oil. Instead of ants, birds can also ant millipedes. Over 250 species of bird have been known to ant. Some birds, including starlings, babblers, tanagers, and weavers, ant actively, that is, pecking up ants and rubbing them over their feathers. There are also passive anters, who just lie above anthills, such as the Eurasian Jay, crows and waxbills. This behaviour was first described by E. Stresemann in German language as einemsen in Ornith. Monatsber. XLIII. 138 in 1935. The Journal of Bombay Natural History Society XXXVIII described it in English language in the following year and translated the term as anting.

Daryl-F.-Mallett



Daryl Furumi Mallett, (born in Los Angeles, California on May 3, 1969), is a Science Fiction editor who has worked for a variety of publishing houses. Mallett received a dual Interdisciplinary Humanities and Social Sciences Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree from the University of California, Riverside in 1991, specializing in Theatre Arts/Public Speaking and Creative Writing/Comparative Literatures and Languages (Speculative Fiction) under the direction of Pilgrim Award-winning author George E. Slusser. He has had the usual roster of odd jobs required by any writer, including ten years at Borgo Press, where he started out as a stock boy in 1989 and ended as a series and senior outside editor in 1999 when the venerable company closed its doors. Of his hundreds of publications, the two which have garnered him the most recognition are Tongue-Tied: Bubos Tale in Star Wars: Tales from Jabbas Palace (ed. by Kevin J. Anderson, Bantam Books, 1996) and the storyline from the two-part Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Birthright (w/Barbra Wallace, Arthur Loy Holcomb and George Brozak). This makes him one of only a handful of writers to have worked on both Star Trek and Star Wars. As an actor, Mallett has appeared in small roles or as an extra in Cannibal Women in the Avocado Jungle of Death, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, and Carmadys People: The Case of the Reluctant Major. He is currently working as co-producer, co-screenwriter and acting in the role of Zar in the film The First Rose of Spring (Draco Productions) and as script supervisor and acting in the role of Drax in the fan film Dr. Who and the Legends of Time (M&V Studios). He is currently at work on numerous projects, including a fourth edition of Reginalds Science Fiction & Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and Their Winners (w/Robert Reginald), co-producing and collaborating with romance novelist Sheryl Flournoy on the script for the fantasy film The First Rose of Spring for Draco Productions, as well as on Lava, a fantasy novel w/Max Espinoza based on the comic book by Ruben Gerard and Espinoza, Like the Awesome Gleam of Crystal, a novel based on the 1954 novel Alien Life, by E. C. Tubb, Among the Vanguard: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide of the Works of A. E. van Vogt, which will feature an introduction by George Clayton Johnson and remembrances by other writers, and George Fox: Friend for Christ, a narrative story of the life of the Quaker evangelist.

Bibliography

Nonfiction books

Reginalds Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and Their Winners, 2nd Ed., by Daryl F. Mallett & Robert Reginald. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1991.
Reginalds Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and Their Winners, 3rd Ed., by Daryl F. Mallett & Robert Reginald. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
The State and Province Vital Records Guide, by Michael Burgess, Mary A. Burgess & Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
The Work of Jack Vance: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, by Jerry Hewett & Daryl F. Mallett. Lancaster, PA & Novato, CA: Underwood-Miller Books, San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
The Work of Elizabeth Chater: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, by Daryl F. Mallett & Annette Y. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
Reginalds Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and Their Winners, 4th Ed., by Daryl F. Mallett & Robert Reginald. Holicong, PA: Wildside Press, contracted.

Edited fiction books

Firefly: A Novel of the Far Future, by Brian Stableford, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). San Bernardino, CA: Unicorn and Son Publishers, 1994.
Street Kids and Other Plays, by Brio Burgess, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. Tempe, AZ: Jacobs Ladder Books/Angel Enterprises, 1995.
Pandoras Box: A Science Fiction Thriller, by E. C. Tubb, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1996.
Shroud Me Not: A Harvey St. John Short Novel, by Harold Q. Masur, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett) / Dig My Grave: A Scott Jordan Short Novel, by Harold Q. Masur, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1996.
Sarasha: A Novel of the Future, by Gary Lovisi, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1997.
Murder Wears a Halo: A Mystery Crime Thriller, by Howard Browne, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1997.
Mitzi: A Mystery Crime Thriller, by Michael Avallone, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1997.
The Brothers Challis, Featuring Bart Challis, in The Pop-Op Caper, with A Long Time Dying: Two Bart Challis Detective Thrillers, by William F. Nolan, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett) / The Brothers Challis, Featuring Nick Challis, in The Pulpcon Kill, with And the Beat Goes On, A Special Introduction, by William F. Nolan, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1997.
Letters from Dwight, by Gary Kern, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Grand Terrace, CA: Xenos Books, 1998.
Alien Life, by E. C. Tubb, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1998.
The Fortress of Utopia, by Jack Williamson, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1998.
The Whispering Gorilla, by Don Wilcox, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett) / Return of the Whispering Gorilla, by David V. Reed, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1999.
The Slitherers, by John Russell Fearn, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1999.
Lord of Atlantis: A Golden Amazon Adventure, by John Russell Fearn, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1999.
The Gargoyle, by Gary Lovisi, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 2000.
Wail, by Brio Burgess, ed. by Gail Tolley & Daryl F. Mallett. Tempe, AZ: Jacobs Ladder Books/Angel Enterprises, 2002.
Things in Revolt, by Lev Lunts, translated by Gary Kern, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Grand Terrace, CA: Xenos Books, forthcoming.
Polygraph, by Gary Kern, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Grand Terrace, CA: Xenos Books, forthcoming.
Apartments, by Gary Kern, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Grand Terrace, CA: Xenos Books, forthcoming.
After Dwight, by Gary Kern, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Grand Terrace, CA: Xenos Books, forthcoming.
Science Fiction Detective Tales, by Gary Lovisi (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, forthcoming.

Edited nonfiction books

One Day with God: A Guide to Retreats and The Contemplative Life, Rev. Ed., by Bishop Karl Pr�ter, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). San Bernardino, CA: St. Willibrords Press, 1991.
Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975-1991: A Bibliography of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Fiction Books and Nonfiction Monographs, by Robert Reginald, Mary A. Burgess & Daryl F. Mallett, Associate Editors. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1992.
Inside Science Fiction: Essays on Fantastic Literature, by James E. Gunn, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1992.
Vultures of the Void: A History of British Science Fiction Publishing, 1946-1956, by Philip Harbottle & Stephen Holland, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1992.
Science Fiction Research Association Annual Directory, 1993, ed. by Robert J. Ewald & Joan Gordon, with Daryl F. Mallett. Garden City, NY: Nassau Community College, 1993.
The Transylvanian Library: A Consumers Guide to Vampire Fiction, by Greg Cox, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
Geo. Alec Effinger: From Entropy to Budayeen, by Ben P. Indick, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
Mary Roberts Rinehart, Mistress of Mystery, by Frances H. Bachelder, ed. by Dale Salwak and Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
Wilderness Visions: The Western Theme in Science Fiction Literature, 2nd Ed., by David Mogen, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
Libido into Literature: The Primera �poca of Benito P�rez Gald�s, by Clark M. Zlotchew, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
International Society of Meeting Planners 1993 Directory of Members and Industry Professionals, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: International Society of Meeting Planners (Todd Publishing), 1993.
Association of Construction Inspectors 1993-1994 Directory of Members and Industry Professionals, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Association of Construction Inspectors (Todd Publishing), 1993.
Federal and State Environmental Agencies Directory, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1994.
The Complete Guide of Environmental Inspection Forms, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1994.
Environmental Assessment Association Directory of Members, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1994.
Complying with the Foreign Investments in Real Property Tax Act: Complete with Appropriate Forms, by Daryl F. Mallett. Scottsdale, AZ: International Real Estate Institute, 1994.
British Science Fiction Paperbacks and Magazines, 1949-1956: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, by Philip Harbottle & Stephen Holland, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett & Michael Burgess. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
Speaking of Horror: Interviews with Writers of the Supernatural, by Darrell Schweitzer, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
The Work of William Eastlake: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, by W. C. Bamberger, ed. by Boden Clarke & Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
W. E. B. Du Bois: His Contributions to Pan-Africanism, by Kwadwo O. Pobi-Asamani, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
Roald Dahl: From the Gremlins to the Chocolate Factory, 2nd Ed., by Alan Warren, ed. by Dale Salwak and Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
Christopher Hampton: An Introduction to His Plays, by William J. Free, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.
Imaginative Futures: The Proceedings of the 1993 Science Fiction Research Association Conference, ed. by Milton T. Wolf & Daryl F. Mallett. Glendale, AZ: SFRA Press, 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The National Environmental Policy Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Clean Air Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Clean Water Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Occupational Safety and Health Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to The Environmental Protection and Community Right-to-Know Act, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Environmental Inspectors Guide to Comprehensive Guidelines, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Scottsdale, AZ: Environmental Assessment Association (Todd Publishing), 1995.
The Chinese Economy: A Bibliography of Works in English, by Robert Goehlert & Anthony C. Stamtoplos, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett, Mary A. Burgess and Xiwen Zhang. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1995.
Islands in the Sky: The Space Station Theme in Science Fiction Literature, by Gary Westfahl, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1996.
Seven by Seven: Interviews with American Science Fiction Writers of the West and Southwest, by Neal Wilgus, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1996.
Amazing Pulp Heroes: A Celebration of the Glorious Pulp Magazines, by Frank Hamilton & Link Hullar, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, 1996.
Pilgrims and Pioneers: The History and Speeches of the Science Fiction Research Association Award Winners, ed. by Hal W. Hall & Daryl F. Mallett. Tempe, AZ: SFRA Press, 2001
Sherlock Holmes: The Great Detective in Paperback, by Gary Lovisi, (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, forthcoming.
Science Fiction Detective Tales, by Gary Lovisi (ed. by Daryl F. Mallett). Brooklyn, NY: Gryphon Books, forthcoming.

Edited poetry anthologies

Full Frontal Poetry, ed. by Daryl F. Mallett, Chaelyn L. Hakim & Frances McConnel. Riverside, CA: FFP Publishing, 1991.

Short fiction

A Typical Terrans Thought When Spoken to by an Alien from the Planet Quarn in Its Native Language, w/Forrest J. Ackerman, in ISFA Newsletter 2:10 (Nov. 1990): 9. Reprinted in Worlds in Small: An Anthology of Miniature Literary Compositions, ed. by John Robert Colombo. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Cacanadadada Press, 1992, p. 86.
The Possible Death of Christopher Marlowe, in UCR Winter Arts Festival Writers Competition Finalists, 1990-91, ed. by Judy Lehr. Riverside, CA: UCR Performing Arts/ASUCR, Nov. 1991, p. 1.
Women Without Men, in Other Worlds 6 (Winter 1996). Reprinted in M&V MagaZine 14:2 (Aug./Sep. 1998).
Tongue-Tied: Bubos Tale, in Star Wars: Tales from Jabbas Palace, ed. by Kevin J. Anderson. New York: Bantam Books, 1996.
Crystal Clear, in M&V MagaZine, Vol. 14:3 (Aug./Sept. 1999), p. 10-11, 13, 24.

Comic books/graphic novels

Hero-Lore 1: The Twelve, Part I: Battlescars, written and co-plotted by Daryl F. Mallett, penciled and co-plotted by Scott P. Vaughn, inked by Amanda M. Kurley, co-plotted, layout and lettered by Tamera K. Frahm, and finished by Frank F. Aguilar. Phoenix: M&V Comics, 1999.

Television writing credits

Star Trek: The Next Generation: Birthright, premise by Barbra Wallace, Daryl F. Mallett & Arthur Loy Holcomb and George Brozak, purchased by Paramount Pictures for uncredited use in teleplays by Brannon Braga and Ren� Echevarria. Aired Feb./Mar. 1993.

Film production credits

Doctor Who: The Legends of Time, (M&V Studios, pre-production) Consultant
The First Rose of Spring (Draco Productions, pre-production) Co-Producer, Co-Scriptwriter
Illusion (Draco Productions, in principal photography) Associate Producer
The Message (Caribou Moving Pictures, 2004) Assistant to the Producer
Sphere (Warner Bros., 1998) Technical Writer
Star Trek: The Next Generation: Birthright (Paramount Pictures, 1991) Storyline Co-creator

Wednesday, February 08, 2006

James-Pennethorne



Sir James Pennethorne (4 June 1801-1871) was a notable 19th century England architect and planner, particularly associated with buildings and parks in central London. Born in Worcester, Pennethorne travelled to London in 1820 to study architecture under, first, August Pugin and then John Nash (architect). Like many architects of the period, he spent time studying in Italy (1824-1826). He then returned to London to work for Nash on several government buildings, and � like Nash � became well-known for his planning work and for landscaping London parks. He served for some years as chief architect at the government�s Office of Works. His building works include:
completion of East and West Park Villages, Regents Park (started by Nash, but completed by Pennethorne after Nashs death in 1835)
the Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London WC2 (1851-1858 � now the library of Kings College London)
ballroom at Buckingham Palace, London SW1 (1854)
the west wing of Somerset House, London WC2 (1849-1856)
alterations to the National Gallery, London (1860-1869)
Army Staff College, Sandhurst (1862)
alterations to Marlborough House, London SW1 (today home of the Commonwealth Secretariat) (1863)
6 Burlington Gardens, London SW1 (originally designed as office accommodation for the University of London, today this forms the rear part of Burlington House, home of the Royal Academy) (1867-1870) His parks include:
Kennington Park, south London
Victoria Park, East London (from 1842, opened 1846).
Battersea Park, south London (1846 to 1864, designed with John Gibson) His pupils included Henry Saxon Snell (1830-1904).

List-of-Malaysian-companies



This is a list of corporation from Malaysia. See lists of companies for lists of companies from other countries.
Air Asia
Astro
Celcom
DIGI
Jaring
Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malaysian Railway)
Malaysia Airlines
Maxis
MIMOS
Proton (car)
Petronas
Salient Synergy
Berjaya Group
YTL Group
Sunway Group
Perodua
Royal Selangor
Genting Group
Resort World
Tenaga Nasional
Malayan Banking (Maybank)
EON
DRB-HICOM
KLCC Properties
Malaysian International Shipping Corp.
Boustead
Guthrie
Golden Hope
Tanjong
Sime Darby
Diethelm
Gamuda
Kinta Kellas
Telekom Malaysia
TM Net
VADS

Tuesday, February 07, 2006

Sandwich,-Illinois



Sandwich is a city located in DeKalb County, Illinois. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 6,509.

Geography

Sandwich is located at 41�3849 North, 88�3713 West (41.647057, -88.620170) GR 1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.8 square kilometer (3.0 square mile). 7.8 km� (3.0 mi�) of it is land and none of it is covered by water.

Demographics

As of the census GR 2 of 2000, there are 6,509 people, 2,402 households, and 1,678 families residing in the city. The population density is 834.9/km� (2,159.5/mi�). There are 2,494 housing units at an average density of 319.9/km� (827.4/mi�). The racial makeup of the city is 95.38% White (U.S. Census), 0.25% African American (U.S. Census), 0.23% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.32% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.06% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 2.58% from Race (U.S. Census), and 1.18% from two or more races. 8.37% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 2,402 households out of which 36.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% are Marriage living together, 9.2% have a female householder with no husband present, and 30.1% are non-families. 25.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.63 and the average family size is 3.17. In the city the population is spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females there are 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city is $50,215, and the median income for a family is $55,599. Males have a median income of $42,806 versus $26,822 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,530. 5.5% of the population and 3.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 4.2% of those under the age of 18 and 2.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Justin-Hawkins



Justin Hawkins is the lead singer of The Darkness. His brother Dan Hawkins is the guitarist. He grew up in Lowestoft, in Suffolk. He was born March 17, 1975. His full name is Justin David Hawkins. He sometimes pretends that his middle name is Danger. He is known for wearing catsuits, his Freddie Mercury style falsetto, and his natural flamboyance. His playfulness has gotten him fired by his brother Dan Hawkins from several different bands. He considered himself a lead guitarist until Dan discovered his brilliance when Justin performed Bohemian Rhapsody in a bar.

Monday, February 06, 2006

Cantaloupe



Taxobox-begin color lightgreen name Cantaloupe Taxobox-image image caption Ripe cantaloupes Taxobox-begin-placement color lightgreen Taxobox-regnum-entry taxon Plantae Taxobox-divisio-entry taxon Flowering plant Taxobox-classis-entry taxon Magnoliopsida Taxobox-ordo-entry taxon Cucurbitales Taxobox-familia-entry taxon Cucurbitaceae Taxobox-genus-entry taxon Cucumis Taxobox-species-entry taxon melo Taxobox-end-placement Taxobox-section-binomial-simple color lightgreen binomial-name Cucumis melo reticulatus TSN&search-value 22362 ITIS 22362 2002-09-03 Taxobox-end A Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo, or Cucumis melo reticulatus), also spelled cantaloup, also called rockmelon, is actually the North American name for a variety of muskmelon. True cantaloupes are not netted, have deep grooves, a hard warty rind, and orange or green flesh. These are grown only in Europe where the population easily makes the distinction between muskmelons and cantaloupes The muskmelons that most Americans call cantaloupes have a distinctly netted or webbed rind (illustration, right). The North American canteloupe, developed by the W. Atlee Burpee Company and introduced in 1881 as the Netted Gem, is a round melon with firm, orange, moderately-sweet flesh and a thin, reticulated, beige to light-brown rind. Varieties with redder and yellower flesh exist, but are uncommon, and are not considered to be as flavorful as the more common orange variety. Cantaloupes belong to family Cucurbitaceae, which includes nearly all melons and Squash (vegetable)es. Cantaloupes are typically 15�25 cm in length. Like all melons, cantaloupes grown best in sandy, well-aerated, well-watered soil that is free of encroaching weeds. For commercial plantings, one hive per acre (4,000 m� per hive) is the minimum recommendation by the United States Department of Agriculture for pollination. Good pollination is important, not only for the number of fruits produced, but also for the sugar content of these fruits.

Origin

Cantaloupe was named after the comune Cantalupo in Sabina, in the Sabine Hills near Tivoli, Italy, a summer residence of the Pope, where it was originally cultivated around 1700 from seeds brought from Armenia, part of the homeland of melons. The cantaloupe found in North America is actually a variety of the muskmelon that Christopher Columbus is said to have brought to the New World on his second voyage in 1494. The most widely cultivated variety of true cantaloupe is the Charentais, almost exclusive to France. Its lightly ribbed, pale green skin looks quite different from the North American variety. Pope Innocent XIII, who reigned from 1721 to 1724, is said to have enjoyed sipping a kind of port wine from the cavity of a half-melon at the beginning of a meal as an ap�ritif. Melon pieces wrapped in prosciutto make a familiar modern antipasto.

Heraldry

The cantaloupe can be a charge (heraldry) in heraldry.

Maritz-Rebellion



The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion Footnotes occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. Many members of the rebellion were themselves former allies of the Boers who had fought together against the British in the Second Boer War, which had ended eleven years earlier.

Lead-up

At the end of the Boer War eleven years earlier, all Boer soldiers had been asked to sign an undertaking that they would abide by the peace terms. Some, like Deneys Reitz, refused and were exiled from South Africa. Over the following decade many returned home, and not all of them signed the undertaking upon returning. At the end of the Boer War those Boers who had fought to the end were known as bitter enders, by the time of the rebellion, those who had not taken the oath and wanted to start a new war had also become known as the bitter enders. A German journalist who interviewed the former Boer general James Barry Munnik Hertzog for the Tagliche Rundschau wrote: Hertzog believes that the fruit of the three-year struggle by the Boers is that their freedom, in the form of a general South African Republic, will fall into their laps as soon as England is involved in a war with a Continental power. Paraphrasing the Irish Nationalists Englands misfortune is the bitter enders opportunity, the bitter enders and their supporters saw the start of World War I as an opportunity eleven years after the end of the Second Boer War, particularly since Englands enemy, Germany, was their old supporter.

The First World War starts

The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long been anticipated, and the government of the Union of South Africa was well aware of the significance of the common border South Africa shared with the German South-West Africa. Prime Minister Louis Botha informed London that South Africa could defend itself and that the Imperial Garrison may depart for France, when the British government asked Botha whether his forces would invade German South-West Africa, the reply was that they could and would. South African troops were mobilised along the border between the two countries under the command of General Henry Timson Lukin and Lt Col Manie Maritz early in September 1914. Shortly afterwards, another force occupied the German port of L�deritz.

The rebellion

When the South African government had offered to invade the German colonies, the commander-in-chief of the Union Defence Force general Christiaan Beyers resigned, writing It is sad that the war is being waged against the barbarism of the Germans. We have forgiven but not forgotten all the barbarities committed in our own country during the South African War, referring to the atrocities committed during the Boer War. A nominated senator, general Koos de la Rey, who had refused to support the government in parliament over this issue, visited Beyers. On 15 September they set off together to visit major J.C.G. Kemp in Potchefstroom, who had a large armoury and a force of 2,000 men who had just finished training, many of whom were thought to be sympathetic to the rebels ideas. Although it is not known what the purpose of their visit was, the South African governmentit belived it to be an attempt to instigate a rebellion, as stated in the Government Blue BookFootnotes on the rebellion. According to general Beyers it was to discuss plans for the simultaneous resignation of leading army officers as protest against the governments actions, similar to what had happend in Britain two years earlier in the Curragh incident over the Third Irish Home Rule Bill. On the way to the meeting de la Rey was accidentally shot by a policeman at a road block set up to look for the Foster gang. At his funeral, however, many Nationalist Afrikaners belived and perpetuated the rumour that it was a government assassination, which added fuel to the fire, this was even further enflamed by Siener van Rensburg and his controversial prophecies. General Maritz, who was head of a commando of Union forces on the border of German South-West Africa, allied himself with the Germans and issued a proclamation on behalf of a provisional government which stated that the former South African Republic and Orange Free State as well as the Cape Province and Natal are proclaimed free from British control and independent, and every White inhabitant of the mentioned areas, of whatever nationality, are hereby called upon to take their weapons in their hands and realize the long-cherished ideal of a Free and Independent South Africa. It was announced that Generals Beyers, Christiaan de Wet, Maritz, Kemp and Bezuidenhout were to be the first leaders of this provisional government. Maritzs forces occupied Keimoes in the Upington area. The Lydenburg commando under General De Wet took possession of the town of Heilbron, held up a train and captured government stores and ammunition. Some of the prominent citizens of the area joined him, and by the end of the week he had a force of 3,000 men. Beyers also gathered a force in the Magaliesberg, in all, about 12,000 rebels rallied to the cause. The government declared marshal law on 14 October 1914, and forces loyal to the government under the command of General Louis Botha and Jan Smuts proceeded to destroy the rebellion. General Maritz was defeated on 24 October and took refuge with the Germans. The Beyers commando was attacked and dispersed at Commissioners Drift on 28 October, after which Beyers joined forces with Kemp, but drowned in the Vaal River on 8 December. General de Wet was captured in Bechuanaland, and General Kemp, having taken his commando across Kalahari desert, losing 300 out of 800 men and most of their horses on the 1100 kilometer month-long trek, joined Maritz in German South-West Africa, but returned after about a week and surrendered on 4 February 1915. Compared to the fate of leading Irish rebels of the Easter Rising Men executed for their role in the Easter Rising in 1916, the leading Boer rebels got off lightly with terms of imprisonment of six and seven years and heavy fines. Two years later they were released from prison, as Louis Botha recognised the value of reconciliation. After this, the bitter enders concentrated on working within the constitutional system and built up the Nationalist Party which would come to dominate the politics of South Africa from the late 1940s until the early 1990s, when the apartheid system they had constructed also fell.

Further reading

Agter Die Skerms met Die Rebelle by C. F. McDonald, (1949) Coenrath Frederik McDonalds inimitable 5 volume account of his adventures on the South African frontier, between 1895 and 1915, has acquired cult status. Collectively, his account is probably the finest & most informative frontier memoir ever to appear in South Africa. It covers experiences in the Boer War, on the Orange River among the trekboers, the Nama-German war, 1914 Rebellion and aftermath. This volume is an insider account of Maritzs Rebellion in the North-West, the alliance with the Germans, the clashes on the Orange River (including the little-known Battle of Kakamas), and the arrival of Kemps commando. Much also on Siener van Rensburg and his prophecies.

Footnotes

General De Wet publicly unfurled the rebel banner in October, when he entered the town of Reitz at the head of an armed commando. He summoned all the town and demanded that the court shorthand writer take down every word he said, among which he complained: I was charged before the Magistrate of Reitz for beating a native boy. I only did it with a small shepherds whip, and for that I was fined 5/-. On hearing the contents of the speech, General Smuts christened the rising as the Five Shilling Rebellion. The Blue Book was issued by the Union of South Africa government on 26 February 1915, entitled The Report on the Outbreak of the Rebellion and the Policy of the Government with regard to its Suppression.

Sunday, February 05, 2006

Malabo



Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Poo). It has a population of approximately 38,000. The city was first founded by the British in 1827, who leased the island from Spain during the colonial period. Named Port Clarence, it was used as a naval station in the effort to suppress the slave trade. Many newly freed slaves were also settled there, prior to the establishment of Sierra Leone as a colony for freed slaves. While many of them later relocated to Sierra Leone, some of their descendants, called Fernandinos, can still be found in Malabo and the surrounding area, where they constitute a distinct ethnic group, speaking their own Afro-Portuguese pidgin dialect. When the island reverted to complete Spanish control, Malabo was renamed Santa Isabel. It was chosen to replace the mainland town of Bata as the capital of the country in 1969, and was renamed Malabo in 1973 as part of President Francisco Mac�as Nguemas campaign to replace European place names with authentic African ones. During his reign of terror, Mac�as Nguema led a near-genocide of the countrys Bubi minority, which formed the majority on Bioko Island, and brought many of his own tribespeople, the Fang to Malabo. In the final years of his rule, when Equatorial Guinea was sometimes known as the Auschwitz of Africa, much of the citys population fled as, indeed, about one-third of the countrys population. Malabo has yet to recover from the scars of that period.

Changes since the discovery of oil

Malabo has been significantly affected by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogos growing cooperation with the oil industry. The countrys production has reached 360,000 barrels/day as of 2004, an increase which had led to a doubling of the citys population Oil has also led to the first regularly-scheduled service between the United States and the city, a weekly flight 100 by Houston Express, a private charter air service formed by an agreement between SONANGOL, Economy of Angola national oil company, and World Airways

Pomosexual



A combination of pomo- (shorthand for postmodernism), and -human sexuality (suggesting a sexual preference or orientation), the term itself is oxymoronic since it is descriptive of persons who do not identity with any specific classification of sexuality, and is used in reference to oneself as a protest against such labels. Although she did not coin it herself, sex-positive activism writer and editor Carol Queen popularized the term by using it as the title of an anthology of essays published in 1997. In it, she describes pomosexuality as the eroticism reality beyond the boundaries of gender, separatism, and essentialism notions of sexual orientation.